Combustion Processes: Engine Emissions
Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor DGI
A cascade impactor with cutpoints of 2.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 microns and a back-up filter.
The particles are collected on Ø47 mm filters with sample flow rate of 70 lpm. DGI is typical used in combustion measurements including automotive emission testing, but it is can be applied to any measurements where particles in its operational range exist.
The Dekati®e-Filter™ adds real-time PM detection into a standard, US EPA 40 CFR Part 1065/1060 filter holder. The e-Filter™ fits into all existing PM filter sampling systems, including CVS and partial flow tunnels. This compact unit is battery operated and includes a diffusion charger with electrical detection for real-time measurement. All data is saved to a micro-SD memory card.
The ELPI®+(Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) is an improved version of the widely used ELPI® system. This instrument enables the measurement of real-time particle size distribution and concentration in the size range of 6 nm – 10 μm, with up to a 10 Hz sampling rate. The ELPI®+ can also be used for real-time particle charge distribution and for gravimetric impactor measurements. Chemical analysis of the size-classified particles may also be conducted post-measurement.
Benefits of the ELPI®+ system include:
- Real-time stand-alone operation
- Wide sample concentration range
- Wide particle size range
- The ability for post-measurement chemical analysis of size classified particles
- Real-time particle charge distribution and gravimetric measurements
High Resolution ELPI®+
The High Resolution ELPI®+ operates in the same manner as the ELPI®+ but features a data inversion algorithm that provides the user with real-time particle size distribution in up to 500 size classes in the size range of 6 nm - 10 µm. The data inversion software may be purchased separately and used with the traditional ELPI®+.
The Dekati® High Temperature ELPI®+ is a version of the ELPI®+ that allows for the direct measurement of heated aerosol samples up to 180° C. The high temperature measurement avoids changes to the sample that can occur during cooling and dilution.
The Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer (APM 3602) classifies particles by mass, based on the balance between centrifugal force and electrostatic force. This desktop unit classifies aerosol particles of 0.001 ~ 565 femtograms (Equivalent to approx. 12 ~ 1,008 nm for particle density of 1 g/cm3).
The APM can be used in the following applications:
- Mass distribution measurements
- Particle density research
- Monodisperse aerosol generation
Pegasor’s M-Sensor can directly measure raw, hot combustion emissions without the need for dilution or conditioning. The resulting measurement is expressed as mass concentration and/or number concentration. The M-Sensor can be used in a variety of applications, including:
- Engine and after-treatment development
- On board diagnostics
- Stack emissions monitoring
- Outdoor and indoor air quality monitoring
The Mi3 is a cost-effective, turnkey system for automotive PM measurements in engine dynamometers, chassis dynamometers, and on-board applications. Utilizing Pegasor M-Sensor technology, the Mi3 can directly measure raw, hot engine emissions without the need for dilution or conditioning, reducing cost, complexity and uncertainty.
The PAP 610 Process Aerosol Photometer measures the particle mass of high concentration, crankcase blow-by aerosols in real-time.
The PAP 612 Process Aerosol Photometer measures the particle mass of low concentration, crankcase blow-by aerosols in real-time.
The GMS 141 Gravimetric Measurement System is a heated filter collection system designed to measure oil content in crankcase blow-by aerosols. A by-pass line allows separators to be brought up to operating conditions prior to filter collection, and a pressure drop measurement across the filter allows consistent mass loading for uniform results.
The LDG 244 Large Droplet Generator is used in applications that require substantial amounts of oil. The LDG is suitable for simulating large bursts of oil and wall film via a single, heated nozzle. The instrument generates a test aerosol with a mean particle size of 50-100 µm and a mass flow within the range of 20-2000 g/h. It can be used in the following applications:
- Testing of oil mist separators
- Performing filter capacity tests
- Simulation of wall film and oil gush effects
- Research and development
Oil Mist Generator ATM 243
Special development for testing oil mist separators.
It generates polydisperse test aerosols with a mean particle size of 1 to 2 µm and with very stable particle size distributions and high concentrations. The device features the possibility to adjust the temperature of the generated aerosols and can be used on a variety of oils. Mass output adjustable via nozzle pressure and nozzle quantity.
Diluters & Conditioners
Dekati® High Pressure Diluter DEED-300
The Dekati® DEED-300 is an aerosol diluter capable of sampling from pressures of up to 1 bar in standard configuration, and up to 10 bars in custom configurations. Available as a single-stage 4:1 diluter, or as a two-stage 40:1 diluter, it features low losses and good time response. The DEED-300 can also be heated and is often used in front of additional dilution and sample conditioning devices such as the DEED-100 when measuring high temperature combustion processes.
Dekati® Diluter DI-1000
A low-cost, simple and easy-to-operate device for diluting aerosol and gaseous samples from any source.
The simplicity and robustness of the all stainless-steel design have made it a widely renowned choice for dilution of combustion aerosols.
The instrument makes detailed studies of soot particles possible by removing volatiles from automotive exhaust. Removal of the volatiles eliminates unwanted sample transformations. The high flow rate of the instrument makes it an ideal tool for use with ELPI® (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) and DMM (Dekati® Mass Monitor).
The Dekati® Engine Exhaust Diluter (DEED) is a simple, easy-to-use engine exhaust conditioning and dilution system. It meets all the requirements of EURO 5b/6 legislations for solid particle number count applications, but offers the flexibility to be used for traditional, particle mass measurements as well.
Dekati® Axial Diluter DAD-100
A simple and cost-effective dilution tool for any dilution task.
Especially designed for use with Dekati instruments, the DAD-100 is very simple to install into any sampling or measurement system. All-stainless steel design makes it also possible to heat the diluter up to 500°C.
Fine Particle Sampler FPS-4000
A sophisticated two stage dilution system for sampling combustion aerosols and other hot gases.
The FPS features hot or cold primary dilution, adjustable dilution ratio up to 200:1 diluted sample flow up to 220 lpm and real time temperature and pressure correction.
Filter Test Rigs
The Separator Performance Tester SPT 140 is used to study the overall efficiency and performance of engine crankcase blow-by separators. The SPT 140 simulates a typical engine environment by generating a heated oil droplet challenge aerosol, and then evaluating the separator performance in overpressure, underpressure or over/underpressure operation modes. A variety of parameters can be measured, including:
- Fractional particle removal efficiency
- Discharge curve
- Pressure regulation curve
- Leakage rate
The Blow-By Test Rig, BBT143, is a compact system used to determine the oil content of engine crankcase, blow-by aerosols in a large concentration range. Both real-time and gravimetric filter measurements are made. It is possible to create a complete engine map in one day.